January 27, 2016
Next month I’ll be speaking about Python types at PyCaribbean in Santa Domingo Dominican Republic. My title will be “Python: As much typing as you want,” obviously this means that I’ve been doing some thinking quite a bit about Python typing of late.
Sometimes we think of Python and other scripting languages as devoid of types. Of course this is not true, almost every language since Assembly has included types to a greater or lesser extent. Even features like Perl’s coercion are just built on top of and intended to convert types—not based on ignoring types.
In the case of Python all of our variables are actually a single type, reference. They are all references to objects and those objects are typed. You can assign any reference to point to any object, but those objects have a class, which is their type and controls their behavior. You can see Python’s types at work if you do something like 2 + ‘2’ which of course equals TypeError. We can check the types with type(3j) or isinstance(42,(int,float)). But how do we deal with these types in Python? Python has 3 common strategies.
One very common strategy in Python is to leverage the fact that all of our variables are references, your code may not care what it was fed. If your code doesn’t do anything where the type matters maybe it doesn’t care. For example:
In all cases here it doesn’t matter what the type is: it will be printable, it will be comparable, it will be possible to turn it into a pickle.
Our next strategy is to convert to the type we want, just to be sure that the type works as we need it to. This also has a few variations:
self.x = int(self.x) self.array = list(seq_or_list) self.value = value*1.0 return self.x * self.array
These techniques are often working on the convention that python constructors return a new object of the same type, making them safe to run on an object that’s already the right type.
A less favored strategy in Python is to check the type of data explicitly. We can of course do this, but this is by far not the norm. As soon as we start doing type checks—no matter how obvious the need—we break the Python norm of duck typing. Nonetheless there are a few cases where we do exactly this.
assert isinstance(self.x, str) if not isinstance(self.left, self.right.__class__): raise TypeError('Left and right must be matching types') if not all(isinstance(x, (str, int, float, bool, None)) for x in vals): raise TypeError('Unable to convert to json') return 'OK'
Python is even doing this itself. Consider what happens in Python 3 when we compare two different types.
Traceback (most recent call last):
File “<stdin>”, line 1, in <module>
TypeError: unorderable types: int() > str()
There is another category of techniques, more common to developers in other languages. We can convert or check the types when they are set as a field on an object. In other languages this would be getters and setters, but I’ll explore the Python equivalent in another post.
I finally got time to hack together the prototype for the class project for my class this weekend. We’re going to be using the RaspberryPi to connect to Plivo and make phone calls, nominally to our Mom’s. I thought one button was boring so our call Mom Button class will actually have 4 buttons suggested as:
* Call Mom
* Call Dad
* Text Mom “I love you”
* Mother’s day special
For more details or to sign up see Meetup.
Cross posted on MakerBar Blog.
March 15, 2013
Last January one of my friends, Bert Hartmann, approached me saying it was that it was time to finally found a Hackerspace in Hoboken. He’d already gathered a half dozen people and thought I should be in on it. Having been a long time admirer of hackerspaces without ever having one close enough to join I was in.
We met through the spring looking for how to do it, what to call it, where to put it, how long to wait,and how to do it legally.. There were a lot of options, the easiest of which would be to become a for profit company, that just doesn’t make any money–that would be really easy. We are not doing that, instead a year later and with the MakerBar well established we are filing to become a true, legally recognized, charitable educational organization. This will cost us about a thousand dollars in filing fees, but it’s the right thing to do legally and simplifies our future taxes and donations. Still this is a thousand dollars we’d rather spend on new kits, power tools, publicity, and other things that support our mission and what’s worse it’s a thousand dollars we need now–before the taxes are due.
So we’re having a fundraiser. We’ve teamed up with The Melting Pot in Hoboken to have a charity auction and happy hour. We’ll be selling some projects that we’ve treasured through the year and some that we build specially for this event, sharing our love of hacking with the community, and enjoying a chocolate fondues contributed by the Melting Pot.
February 3, 2013
Next Saturday I’ll be teaching another class at my hackerspace, the MakerBar in Hoboken. This will be my third Raspberry Python class. Following up on the initial class, and the train class. Like the others, this workshop will cover the basic use of a Raspberry Pi, but it’s coming together really well, I’ve got a Pi sitting on my desk chattering inane things from my twitter feed at me and actually, it’s proving more useful than I expected. Just in developing the project I’m finding more out about my friends than I had before–mostly some corporate feeds to unfriend and some friends to check up on.
The class will run about 2-3 hours so we’ll have time to get our Pis setup, on the latest version of Raspbian, which already includes NTP, and really dive into the programming and improvement. Since most of our time and effort will be software, the hardware is perhaps not so impressive, no loop of train track here, but this is a picture, of the prototype
If you’re interested in coming, please rsvp at meetup here. And if you need a Pi or SD card, leave a comment there, a few are on order so we should have some.
January 31, 2013
By the end of the week it will be February and my hackerspace, MakerBar, will be on to our February theme, it’s about time. The members are talking about clock and calendar projects and there are two clock classes in the works; Raspberry Python – Talking Clock Feb 9th and ChipKIT for Organic Lifeforms: Clock Edition Feb 23th.
This then is the first clock of February, a ChipKIT Uno32 with a ChipKIT Basic I/O Shield attached. As befits a beginning this is a very simple project.
Step 1 Solder in RTC Crystal (based on instructions here)
Step 2 Attached Basic I/O Shield (got this for contest here)
// Initialize the RTCC module
// Set the time to something sensible
// Format the time and print it.
sprintf(date,”%02d/%02d/%02d”, RTCC.day(), RTCC.month(), RTCC.year());
sprintf(time,”%02d:%02d:%02d”, RTCC.hours(), RTCC.minutes(), RTCC.seconds());
//Clear the virtual buffer
//Chosing Fill pattern 0
//Turn automatic updating off
This clock will become the basis of the class project for the February 23th class, ChipKIT for Organic Lifeforms: Clock Edition. The clock in that class will not rely on this shield and will have functionality this clock does not, like setting the time, and time permitting an alarm.
Full, latest code available here.
August 26, 2012
There is a missing middle in our approaches to sharing servers. On one end we have static web hosting where all users are doing the same thing so we can install and run one copy of Apache for all users, that works up to the point of cgi scripts and php. The other end of the spectrum is to buy a server and that extends down to virtualized servers. Between there is a gap where there is some commonality to the user’s needs, but little support. Engine Yard has their RailsEngine platform for Ruby and there are a few Python offerings of which PythonAnywhere is one.
PythonAnywhere starts from the assumption that you will be running Python. They also assume that you’ll want to use Python interactively at least sometimes, probably a lot. The operation of PythonAnywhere is to login and select a console. You can choose from your existing consoles or start a new one in your choice of:
* Python: 2.7 / 2.6 / 3.2
* IPython (0.12): 2.7 / 2.6 / 3.2
* PyPy (1.6): 2.7
For non-interactive hosting you can go simple with scheduled tasks or hook in a wsgi application. Because the servers are virtualized via Amazon’s ec2 you cannot run a server directly. Free users can have username.pythonanywhere.com addresses, and paying customers can point their own domains at the service. That’s pretty much the way of things when it comes to paying, PythonAnywhere is on a freemium model, most of what you need is in the free tier, unless you’re doing something that you’ll have to admit is on the heavy side. The only real hassle to the free tier is that they’ve had to restrict http access to a whitelist of sites to prevent misuse.
To get started with PythonAnywhere just sign up at https://www.pythonanywhere.com/ with the free account you can get two consoles, a database, and everything you need. Sign up is faster than installing python locally. Even from the basic account you can share a console, so this makes a great tool for learning and exploration. Give it a try next time you’re experimenting or collaborating, try it on a desktop or laptop before trying to use it on a mobile device where it can be a bit more finicky.
Disclaimer, I have been involved in the PythonAnywhere Beta test and they have thanked me with account upgrades and free gifts. No one from PythonAnywhere nor Resolver Systems was contacted to prepare this review.